Built in 1896 and in continuous use until 1995, this pinwheel style quaker prison was a reflection of a similar one located nearby. You can tour that one for a few dollars and take as many pictures as you like. This one was not so easy....
It was the site of a controversial decades-long dermatological, pharmaceutical, and biochemical weapons research projects involving testing on inmates.
The prison is also notable for several major riots in the early 1970s.
The prison was home to several trials which raised several ethical and moral questions pertaining to the extent to which humans can be experimented on. In many cases, inmates chose to undergo several inhumane trials for the sake of small monetary reward. The prison was viewed as a human laboratory.
“All I saw before me were acres of skin. It was like a farmer seeing a fertile field for the first time.” Dr. X
One inmate described experiments involving exposure to microwave radiation, sulfuric and carbonic acid, solutions which corroded and reduced forearm epidermis to a leather-like substance, and acids which blistered skin in the testicular areas.
In addition to exposure to harmful chemical agents, patients were asked to physically exert themselves and were immediately put under the knife to remove sweat glands for examination. In more gruesome accounts, fragments of cadavers were stitched into the backs of inmates to determine if the fragments could grow back into functional organs.
So common was the experimentation that in the 1,200-person prison facility, around 80% to 90% of inmates could be seen experimented on.
The rise of testing harmful substances on human subjects first became popularized in the United States when President Woodrow Wilson allowed the Chemical Warfare Service (CAWS) during World War I.
All inmates who were tested upon in the trials had consented to the experimentation, however, they mostly agreed for incentives like monetary compensation. Experiments in the prison often paid around $30 to $50 and even as much as $800. “I was in prison with a low bail. I couldn’t afford the monies to pay for bail. I knew that I wasn’t guilty of what I was being held for. I was being coerced to plea bargain. So, I thought, if I can get out of this, get me enough money to get a lawyer, I can beat this. That was my first thought.”
I expected to find an epic medical ward only to be filled with disappointment. The practice was so common I can only assume it was conducted everywhere.
Many advocates of the prison trials, such as Solomon McBride, who was an administrator of the prisons, remained convinced that there was nothing wrong with the experimentation at the Holmesburg prison. McBride argued that the experiments were nothing more than strapping patches of cloth with lotion or cosmetics onto the backs of patients and argued this was a means for prisoners to earn an easy income.
The negative public opinion was particularly heightened by the 1973 Congressional Hearing on Human Experimentation. The hearing was supposed to discuss the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and clarify the ethical and legal implications of human experimental research. This climate called for a conscious public which rallied against the use of vulnerable populations such as prisoners as guinea pigs. Companies and organizations who associated themselves with human testing faced severe backlash. Amidst the numerous senate hearings, public relation nightmares, and opponents to penal experimentation, county prison boards realized human experimentation was no longer acceptable to the American public. Swiftly, human testing on prisoners was phased out of the United States.
Only a renovated gymnasium is considered suitable for holding inmates. That building is frequently used for overflow from other city jails.
The district attorney launched an extensive two year investigation documenting hundreds of cases of the rape of inmates.
The United States had ironically been strong enforcers of the Nuremberg Code and yet had not followed the convention until the 1990s. The Nuremberg code states: “[T]he person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, overreaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision.”
The prison trials violated this definition of informed consent because inmates did not know the nature of materials they were experimented with and only consented due to the monetary reward. America’s shutting down of prison experimentation such as those in the prison signified the compliance of the Nuremberg Code of 1947.
You look so precious.
Not really derelict, but it was a quality mooch!!!
The General Cemetery of All Souls, Kensal Green, is one of England's oldest and most beautiful public burial grounds
The plan for London's first garden cemetery was initiated by the barrister George Frederick Carden, who was inspired by a visit to Père-Lachaise in Paris in 1821. Alert both to the need for new burial grounds, and the commercial potential of the venture, Carden founded the General Cemetery Company in 1830, with influential supporters including Andrew Spottiswoode MP and the banker John Dean Paul of Rodburgh
The cemetery was established by Act of Parliament which had its final reading in July 1832, during a cholera epidemic -- a coincidence that implicitly made the case for reform.
The Bishop of London consecrated the first 48 acres in January 1833, and the first funeral was conducted a week later.
From the funeral of HRH The Duke of Sussex in 1843 to that of his nephew HRH The Duke of Cambridge in 1904, Kensal Green was the most fashionable cemetery in England
Its notable personalities include some 650 members of the titled nobility and over 550 individuals noted in the Dictionary of National Biography.
Kensal Green is the resting place of the engineers Sir Marc Isambard Brunel and Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the mathematician Charles Babbage, and the novelists Wilkie Collins, Anthony Trollope and William Makepeace Thackeray; Lord Byron's wife, Oscar Wilde's mother, Charles Dickens' in-laws and Winston Churchill's daughter; a cross-dressing Army doctor and the surgeon who attended Nelson at Trafalgar; the creator of Pears' Soap, and the original WH Smith; the funambulist Blondin and the Savoyard George Grossmith; the first man to cross Australia from south to north, and the last man to fight a duel in England; the Duke's nephew who ruined the richest heiress of the day, and the English adventuress who became a French baronne disgraced by the accusation of murder.
Kensal Green boasts some 140 Grade I, II* and II Listed buildings and monuments, including the magnificent Anglican Chapel (Top 2 pano's)
The Cemetery is cared for by "The Friends of Kensal Green Cemetery" which is an independent registered charity
By TheBaronof Scotland
ok, been a while since I posted from this trip.
Day 3, after a very messy night involving several bottles of "baron" red wine, our motley crew awoke.
Where were we going ?? The night before had been frantic messages home and abroad trying to figure out if the place was still open.......... yes/no/yes/no, then we decided Foret, but then we decided prison........ the last message I had stated it was open, so we got in the car and set off.
After at least 3 wrong turns on the motorways we finally got heading in the right direction !!
We met up with 2 explorers from Holland, Mornix and Mallory, good friends and really good to see them again. (Mallorys Apricot pie was amazing !! and who says prison food is rubbish )
Long story short......... we got in........ took some pics......... go out........ no dramas no gypsies but we heard a few guns being fired in the prison next next door.
I haven't been here for a while, sorry for that. I will try to catch up with you!
I have visit The Patarei Prison in Estonia last summer. For the amount of €2 you can undertake a self-guided ‘urban exploration’ tour. This prison has a long history and I tried to find some info about it, but there's not much to find. It's even not on wikipedia.
I only knew that it used to be a really bad prison. This site will give you the most detailed information about this fortress. http://www.academia.edu/3767226/Patarei_Prison_Tallinn_problematic_built_heritage_and_dark_tourism
It's a big complex and I don't think I have seen everything. There are no signs, so I didn't know in what kind of room I was. Now I figured out that one room was "the hanging room". Pretty creepy to know that I was there.
I hope you enjoy my set. I'm still working on some photos, there was just so much too see!
Had chance to visit this place with permission so living down the road i thought it was worth popping in. The Old Nick was the original police station in Gainsborough. It is an Italianate-style Grade II building at the junction of Spring Gardens and Cross Street - just above the vehicular access to Marshall's Yard. Back in 1859 land on this site was sold to build a Magistrates' Court and Police Station. These buildings served their purpose until 1972 when the new police station on Morton Terrace was built followed by the new Magistrates' Court on Church Street in 1978. The court room is now the main theatre, still can see the main structure but they were practising for a show so no great photos, again with the judges rest room, its the costume room.
Down stairs though, pretty untouched are the cells, interview room, doctors room, check in desk and exercise yard.
Few other bits and bobs to see, this is it really. If you close by and get the chance its worth it. Another local one im glad to get off the list anyways