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About Nobby

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  • Birthday 03/28/1983

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  1. Chernobyl & Pripyat - Ukraine OCTOBER 2014 I've been sat around on these since 2014!....seeing it was my last jaunt I thought I might as well chuck something up.....better late than never. There's a lot of reports online so I've tried to mix it up a bit and add something a bit different. Theres a couple of generic Chernobyl shots with bits and bobs of what I liked the look of. Its an incredible place as those who have visited will know, We spent 4 days in total having a good mooch with Nikolai as our guide, he's an absolute legend and made it an outstanding trip, he comes highly recommended as does his moonshine!. I'm well aware that a lot of you will know the history but for those who don't I've added a bit of literature. In the early hours of 26 April 1986, one of four nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl power station exploded. The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators. It was a direct consequence of Cold War isolation and the resulting lack of any safety culture. Engineers on the evening shift at Chernobyl's number four reactor began an experiment to see whether the cooling pump system could still function using power generated from the reactor under low power should the auxiliary electricity supply fail. At 2300 control rods, which regulate the fission process in a nuclear reactor by absorbing neutrons and slowing the chain reaction, were lowered to reduce output to about 20% of normal output required for the test. However, too many rods were lowered and output dropped too quickly, resulting in an almost complete shutdown. Concerned by possible instability, engineers began to raise the rods to increase output. At 0030 the decision was taken to carry on. By 0100 power was still only at about 7%, so more rods were raised. The automatic shutdown system was disabled to allow the reactor to continue working under low power conditions. The engineers continued to raise rods. By 0123, power had reached 12% and the test began. But seconds later, power levels suddenly surged to dangerous levels. The reactor began to overheat and its water coolant started to turn to steam. At this point it is thought that all but six control rods had been removed from the reactor core - the minimum safe operating number was considered to be 30. The emergency shutdown button was pressed. Control rods started to enter the core, but their reinsertion from the top displaced coolant and concentrated reactivity in the lower core. With power at roughly 100 times normal, fuel pellets in the core began to explode, rupturing the fuel channels. At about 0124, two explosions occurred, causing the reactor's dome-shaped roof to be blown off and the contents to erupt outwards. As air was sucked in to the shattered reactor, it ignited. flammable carbon monoxide gas causing a reactor fire which burned for nine days. Because the reactor was not housed in a reinforced concrete shell, as is standard practice in most countries, the building sustained severe damage and large amounts of radioactive debris escaped into the atmosphere. Firefighters crawled onto the roof of the reactor building to fight the blaze while helicopters dropped sand and lead in an effort to quell the radiation. The disaster released at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Much of the fallout was deposited close to Chernobyl, in parts of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. More than 350,000 people resettled away from these areas, but about 5.5 million remain. Contamination with caesium and strontium is of particular concern, as it will be present in the soil for many years. After the accident traces of radioactive deposits were found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere. But wind direction and uneven rainfall left some areas more contaminated than their immediate neighbours. Scandinavia was badly affected and there are still areas of the UK where farms face post-Chernobyl controls. The sarcophagus encasing Chernobyl was built in haste and is crumbling. Despite strengthening work there are fears it could collapse, leading to the release of tonnes of radioactive dust. Work is currently ongoing on a £600m replacement shelter designed to last 100 years. This New Safe Confinement will be built on site and then slid over the sarcophagus. The shelter will allow the concrete structure to be dismantled and for the radioactive fuel and damaged reactor to be dealt with. The ends of the structure will be closed-off. Despite the lasting contamination of the area, scientists have been surprised by the dramatic revival of its wildlife. Wild horse, boar and wolf populations are thriving, while lynx have returned to the area and birds have nested in the reactor building without any obvious ill-effects. Thanks for looking
  2. Mother of god! I've done Pripyat, I have to say.....these are exceptional!
  3. Perseverance pays off! I must say you've changed your style of late. Looks good, very documentary
  4. Duga 3 (OTH) Radar During our trip to Chernobyl and Pripyat our man on the ground informed us we were off to Duga-3. We jumped in the van and headed off into the countryside a few kilometres from the centre of Pripyat through the vast forests of northern Ukraine to the site. The sight of Duga from the road as we headed in was intimidating, this behemoth of Soviet steel that stood before us getting taller and taller the closer we got started to make my palms sweat and my heart rate rise. I only had one thought on my mind. History The Russian Woodpecker was a notorious Soviet signal that could be heard on the shortwave radio bands worldwide between July 1976 and December 1989. It sounded like a sharp, repetitive tapping noise, at 10 Hz, giving rise to the "Woodpecker" name. The random frequency hops disrupted legitimate broadcast, amateur radio, utility transmissions, and resulted in thousands of complaints by many countries worldwide. The signal was long believed to be that of an over-the-horizon radar (OTH) system. This theory was publicly confirmed after the fall of the Soviet Union, and is now known to be the Duga-3 system, part of the Soviet Anti-ballistic missile early-warning network. The Soviets had been working on early warning radar for their anti-ballistic missile systems through the 1960s, but most of these had been line-of-sight systems that were useful for raid analysis and interception only. None of these systems had the capability to provide early warning of a launch, which would give the defences time to study the attack and plan a response. At the time the Soviet early-warning satellite network was not well developed, and there were questions about their ability to operate in a hostile environment including anti-satellite efforts. An over-the-horizon radar sited in the USSR would not have any of these problems, and work on such a system for this associated role started in the late 1960s. The first experimental system, Duga-1, was built outside Mykolaiv in Ukraine, successfully detecting rocket launches from Baikonur Cosmodrome at 2,500 kilometres. This was followed by the prototype Duga-2, built on the same site, which was able to track launches from the far east and submarines in the Pacific Ocean as the missiles flew towards Novaya Zemlya. Both of these radar systems were aimed east and were fairly low power, but with the concept proven work began on an operational system. The new Duga-3 systems used a transmitter and receiver separated by about 60 km. Starting in 1976 a new and powerful radio signal was detected worldwide, and quickly dubbed the Woodpecker by amateur radio operators. Transmission power on some woodpecker transmitters was estimated to be as high as 10 MW EIRP. As well as disrupting shortwave amateur radio and broadcasting it could sometimes be heard over telephone circuits due to the strength of the signals. This led to a thriving industry of "Woodpecker filters" and noise blankers. Example of the signal Triangulation quickly revealed the signals came from Ukraine. Confusion due to small differences in the reports being made from various military sources led to the site being alternately located near Kiev, Minsk, Chernobyl, Gomel or Chernihiv. All of these reports were describing the same deployment, with the transmitter only a few kilometers southwest of Chernobyl (south of Minsk, northwest of Kiev) and the receiver about 50 km northeast of Chernobyl (just west of Chernihiv, south of Gomel). Starting in the late 1980s, even as the Federal Communications Comission (FCC) was publishing studies of the signal, the signals became less frequent, and in 1989 disappeared altogether. Although the reasons for the eventual shutdown of the Duga-3 systems have not been made public, the changing strategic balance with the end of the cold war in the late 1980s likely had a major part to play. Another factor was the success of the US-KS early-warning satellites, which entered preliminary service in the early 1980s, and by this time had grown into a complete network. The satellites provide immediate, direct and highly secure warnings, whereas any radar-based system is subject to jamming, and the effectiveness of OTH systems is also subject to atmospheric conditions. According to some reports, the installation was taken off combat alert duty in November 1989, and some of its equipment was subsequently scrapped. The original Duga-3 site lies within the 30 kilometer Zone of Alienation around the Chernobyl Plant. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Thanks for Looking
  5. Ignore me! I was being a dick. Booze and the internet are not a good combo.
  6. Very good....... however, with all due respect Woody, and I mean this in the nicest possible way.....Royal Marines don't take 'refuge'! Winston Churchill would turn in his grave if he saw this.
  7. That's a bit of alright that CS! beautiful bit of light, outstanding.
  8. Ooooh props! Looks awesome, brilliant phots.