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  1. The secrets of the legendary catacombs of Paris, a tunnel system that spans more than 280km in length. The catacombs in Paris hold remains of more than six million people. They are part of a tunnel network that runs below Paris that is more than 280 kilometers long. No one knows how far the tunnels extend in total, as there are still many paths that are unmapped and even undiscovered. The main reason behind the tunnels was to extract Lutetian limestone for use as a building material. For instance, parts of the Louvre, the Place de la Concorde and Les Invalides were built with limestone from this tunnel system. The catacombs only take up about 2.1km of the tunnel system and they are the only part that is legally accessible. Even though that is the case, many people refer to the surrounding tunnel network when speaking about the "Catacombs of Paris". The ossuary was created in the late 1700s to tackle the problem of overflowing cemeteries and until the early 19th century, the ossuary was largely forgotten until it became a novelty place for concerts and other private events. The network is mostly intact today and is regularily toured by urban explorers or so called "Cataphiles". If anyone is curious about the way we took, the names of the rooms we went into and a bit of a sidestory, here's the full post (warning: It's damn long and I feel it would overcrowd the forums) Also, even though I posted a lot of photos, these are not all, so feel free to check out the rest of them if anyone has gotten curious. LINK: http://inwordsandpictures.net/catacombs FULL-ALBUM: https://flic.kr/s/aHskDMEvnC INSTAGRAM: ofcdnb DSC_9230 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9239 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9241 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9245 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9250 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9254 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9257 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9265_1 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9276 by anthrax, auf Flickr SC_9279 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9281 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9283_1 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9290_1 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9311 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9338 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9343_2 by anthrax, auf Flickr DSC_9346_1 by anthrax, auf Flickr
  2. An early partial visit of blast furnaces with @Himeiji that ended by being caught by securitas, who called another security crew, who called the cops...... I wanna go back there but I don't know if I should :s Hell, Mittal's a bitch, but a beautiful one xD
  3. The place, called "little Lutece", the ancient name of Paris, was a holiday park with an Asian restaurant, a villa and other buildings. Unfortunately, I don't know when it was built, opened or closed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
  4. Chateau Sarco – France Built in the 19th century. Once owned by the ministry and sold in 2008 for just under 4 Million euro and abandoned ever since……
  5. Chateau Marianne / Chateau Alchimiste History Not much history on this location but it was rumoured to be have been once occupied by a former professor. The chateau is located in a small, rural town in France. The town's residents have halved in the last 40 years and it was beginning to look quite run down. I can imagine the nickname 'Alchimiste' (which means Alchemist in French) came from all the chemistry equipment left behind such as: test tubes, syringes, bottles, cylinders and beakers. It seems the previous inhabitant was also a bit of an artist, we found many paintings scattered around the house and a large collection in the attic, as well as a small studio in an upstairs room. Visit I visited this beautiful chateau on a euro trip with @PROJ3CTM4YH3M. We went the previous night to check to see if it was accessible and boy we were in for a shock! Neither of us realised how much stuff had been left and how interesting the contents were. We both particularly liked the framed butterfly collection which was hung up in one of the living rooms, as it reminded us of the film 'Silence of the Lambs.' After a short investigation we decided to return the following day and booked a hotel in a nearby town. Arriving the next morning once sun had risen, the place was really brought into it's element. So, as always, hope you enjoy my photos! If you've got this far, thanks for reading
  6. This was our first Metz German Fortification of the day and it did not disappoint. GF L'Yser is filled with murals and paintings, which are incredible and fortunately survive after nearly 100 years. Visited with @flat and a few other non-members History: The Feste Prinz Regent Luitpold, renamed Group Fortification Yser after 1919, is a military installation near Metz that was constructed between 1907 and 1914. It is part of the second fortified belt of forts of Metz and formed part of a wider program of fortifications called "Moselstellung", encompassing fortresses scattered between Thionville and Metz in the valley Moselle. The aim of Germany was to protect against a French attack to take back Alsace-Lorraine and Moselle from the German Empire. The fortification system was designed to accommodate the growing advances in artillery since the end of XIXth century. Based on new defensive concepts, such as dispersal and concealment, the fortified group was to be, in case of attack, an impassable barrier for French forces. During The Annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, the fort receives a garrison of gunners belonging to the XVIth Army Corps. From 1914-1918, it served as a relay for the German soldiers at the front post. Its equipment and weapons are then at the forefront of military technology. In 1919, the fort was occupied by the French army. After the departure of French troops in June 1940, the German army reinvests the fort. In early September 1944, at the beginning of the Battle of Metz, the German command integrates the fort into the defensive system set up around Metz. Must go back Outer fighting block: DDE_5447 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5457 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5459 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5462 copy by Nick, on Flickr Turreted by Nick, on Flickr Main block DDE_5494 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5507 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5511 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5528 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5533 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5543 copy by Nick, on Flickr The Murals DDE_5563 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5506 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5586 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5503 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5588 copy by Nick, on Flickr DDE_5587 copy by Nick, on Flickr
  7. La Morgue Prelude is situated on a massive hospital site. The hospital originally opened in the 1860’s, the hospital itself is still in use today but large parts of it is unused and getting renovated.
  8. The once grand Bureau Central administration building now stands decayed and rotting, but still retains nearly all of it's character. History The Bureau Central was the main offices for the de Wendel Family Metal company. The Family had been involved in metal industry since the 18th Century. By the 19th Century they were the 3rd largest iron company in Franc. In 1870 they became the largest iron company after a major furnace upgrade successfully modernised their production. During this period they employed 7000 people and were producing 112,500 tonnes of iron and 134,500 tonnes of pig iron each year. When they expanding to steelmaking, they needed a grand main office to impress customers and keep on top of their every growing enterprise, and so in 1892 Central Bureau was built. In 1926 the Bureau Central was expanded to cope with the still growing paperwork. The de Wendal iron enteprise continued to flourish until the post WW2 period where business fell into a decline. The mining industry was nationalised and eventually the whole family company was completely nationalised. Bureau Central was abandoned in the 1980's after a company merger. The building itself is listed and protected. The Explore The first attempt at Bureau Central was a bit of a fail as there was a worker cutting trees right behind the building, exactly where I needed to be. So I went off to explore a plan B (Terre Rouge) and returned a few days later on a Saturday morning when it was much quieter, and I got in with no drama this time. The building is very decayed and has been well trashed. Looking at older photos it seems its been in a bad state of decay for a number of years, and not much has changed recently. It's got 4 levels including a huge basement level. The building is pretty big, with lots of rooms, but most of them are empty and layered in collapsed ceiling material. However the grandeur, architecture and nice lighting makes it the most photogenic explore I've done for a while. The long corridors, skylights and peeling paint tick all the boxes of a good decay photo. I was there alone for a couple hours until 5 German Explorers showed up to explore it too. Turned out to be a really decent bunch too. A cracker of an explore! Photos
  9. This old chapel in the middle of the forest was the first stop during my last trip to France on the penultimate weekend. Only a small and overgrown path leads to it. If you don't know the location, you'll hardly find it; even from the winding country road below the chapel, it's barely visible. Inside were still several beautiful things - dusty plastic flowers, small Madonna statuettes and images of saints, as well as two rosary necklaces with crosses. In a broken stone the date 13th of April 1870 was engraved. However, I don't know when the secluded chapel was actually built. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
  10. It was a very long trip on this day - 23.5 hours on the road, 1480 km driven... But it was worth it. In the afternoon we reached our third place, this old house on the outskirts of a small village. From the outside it was already pretty overgrown. Nevertheless, access wasn't difficult. Inside were old furniture, various dolls, a piano, and everything surrounded by beautiful decay. Only the smell of a decaying fox in the entrance area wasn't really pleasant... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  11. In early 2018 we visited one of the new tunnels of Paris metro which for the moment (May 2018) is still under construction. Recently I was told that this place is no longer accessible due to active works that doesn't stop even at night, so I will publish some pictures. Btw, we managed to get in only from the 2nd try - there is a security guy walking around the construction site (on the street). The new tunnel is 2km long. We walked till the end and on the way back checked out the end of the active line. There were two trains. Soon we heard some noise (like if someone'd open a door) and left the place.
  12. A former powerplant that ran on gas from blast furnaces, now being demolished. ----
  13. An oil refinery being decommissioned... I went there with my bicycle, managed to get it past the first fence which was nice xD I hope i didn't put too many photos... D90 with sigma 17-70 cheers
  14. Was reminded that I didn't posted anything yet so, here's a post of a recent visit to this mine. This one is not the safest one :-) . Some parts are already collapsed. There are several levels but the lower did we skip. Heard that the air quality is not the best there and we didn't bring the rope ladder . Was nice to explore. Hope you enjoy looking at this.
  15. cgeff

    France Rusty Mine

    Hi All, Some pictures of a mine. A spot quite dangerous but a great place ! Hope you will like these pictures
  16. Hi all, Some pictures from "Bureau Central" Hope that you will like these ones
  17. Hi everyone! I'm looking for people to visit locations together, somewhere in Belgium, NL, Luxembourg, France, or nearby) I'm rather experienced with urbex, but I don't really like doing it alone and it's hard to find people who also understand what they're doing at locations. I'm mostly interested in metro/underground stuff and roofs. Soon I'm planning to search for some roofs in Brussels and Amsterdam, and check out local metro. If you'd like to join me - let me know!
  18. Ouvrage Hobling is a lesser work (petit ouvrage) of the Maginot Line. Hobling was approved for construction by CORF (Commission d'Organisation des Régions Fortifiées), the Maginot Line's design and construction agency, in 1931 and became operational by 1935, at a cost of 14 million francs. The contractor was Gianotti of Nice. Hobling consists of four combat blocks. The blocks are linked by an underground gallery with barracks and a utility area (usine). The galleries are excavated at an average depth of up to 30 metres (98 ft). In June 1940 the garrison comprised 115 men and 4 officers of the 164th Fortress Infantry Regiment (RIF). The commanding officer was Captain Boileau. The Casernement de Férange provided peacetime above-ground barracks and support services to Hobling and other positions in the area. The units were under the umbrella of the 3rd Army, Army Group 2. Hobling played no significant role in either the Battle of France in 1940 or the Lorraine Campaign of 1944. After the Second World War it became part of the Mòle de Boulay, a strongpoint in the northeastern defenses against Soviet attack. Hobling remained under Army control until after 1971, when it was declassified and sold. Sold in 1975, Hobling has been partially stripped by salvagers and is abandoned. The salvage work stopped with the removal of all metals, including cloches and turrets, from two blocks. Hobling was the last ouvrage to be stripped. Visited with @The_Raw 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  19. Visited recently on my first foray over to the European side of life (can't believe it has taken so long). It was excellent / cold in the snow! History: On May 9, 1899, Kaiser Wilhelm II laid the first stone of Fort St. Blaise. Group Fortification Verdun group is built on top of two hills, it consists of two forts, the fort Sommy 30 ha in the south, and Fort Saint-Blaise 45 ha on the north. Group Fortification Verdun has four 150mm howitzers and six short 100mm guns. Fort St. Blaise was planned for 500 men and fort Sommy for 200 men. It could then receive two infantry companies, in addition to the gunners. St. Blaise, whose fortified barracks could receive 500 people, has 10 observation domes and 12 lookout posts.[4] The water tank's capacity was 1,300 m. 4 diesel engines of 25HP each, providing the energy necessary for Fort St. Blaise. The fort Sommy, including the fortified barracks, could accommodate 200 people, and has 6 observation domes and 8 lookouts. Its water tank could hold 600 m and it had 3 diesel engines of 20HP each, to provide the energy needed for its operation.[4] The coat of arms of Count of Haeseler is carved on the pediment of the door of the fort. It caused the Americans a huge headache in WW2 and proved its worth as a fortified location. Patton underestimated their strength immensely. Fort St. Blaise: The first of the two forts, complete with short 100mm funs in place showing battle damage. Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Collapsed structure / battle damage Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr The thing you don't realise until you get there is that the French Army have not removed any of the barbed wire entanglements, complete with foot spikes and in some places, unexploded ordnance Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Fort Sommy: The smaller outer fort, with a machine gun cupola and two turrets with guns and a tonne more battle damage, with craters and wall collapses all over the shop! Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr Untitled by Nick, on Flickr
  20. The colliery Saint Fontaine was opened in 1908. For the extraction of hard coal, they dug to a depth of 1037 meters. In the 1960s, up to two million tons of hard coal were mined. In 1972 the colliery was closed for the first time, but in 1976 the operation was resumed. In 1986, the final closure, whereupon a large part of the buildings were demolished. Today, apart from the listed tower, only the administrative building including the locker room / pithead baths exists. In recent years, unfortunately, there was a lot of vandalism; last the ceiling lamps were destroyed by some idiots. In Saint Fontaine, there were repeated fatal accidents. On 3 January 1933, 36 miners were killed in a gas explosion. On May 29, 1959, another 26 workers were killed in another explosion. On September 23, 1968, three miners smothered. Visited with @The_Raw. 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  21. Another visit from October with @Andy, @[email protected]_ironing. From seeing Andy's report I missed quite a few bits but you can't see everything unless you spend the whole day down there. Another epic bit of WW2 history and there's lots more out there. Ouvrage Mont des Welches, a gros ouvrage of the Maginot Line fortifications, is part of the Fortified Sector of Boulay. It comprises two entrance blocks, one infantry block, one artillery block, one observation block and two combination blocks. The underground gallery system is compact, about 200 metres (660 ft) from end to end, and unlike larger ouvrages where the gallery system is linear in concept, the central portion of Mont des Welches is a dense network of tunnels crossing one another, housing the barracks and utility areas. The galleries are excavated at an average depth of up to 30 metres (98 ft). Unlike most gros ouvrages, its 60 cm internal rail network was not electrified, relying on human power to move the rail cars. Relatively small for a gros ouvrage, Mont des Welches saw a brief period of sharp action in June 1940, when German forces moving along the rear of the Maginot Line engaged the position without success. The manning of the ouvrage in June 1940 comprised 490 men and 17 officers of the 167th Fortress Infantry Regiment and the 151st Position Artillery Regiment. After modest renovations in the 1950s, it was abandoned in the 1970s. Bon journée
  22. In May I went to Lake Constance for a Vespa Corso. As the wheather forecast was promising I decided to take the chance for a ride through Baden-Württemberg. Feeling hungry once I realised to be close to the French border. Et voila.. Château Lumière. No more words neccessary about Château Lumière I suppose. #1 DSC06840 by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #2 DSC06904 by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #3 DSC06883-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #4 DSC06891_neu by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #5 DSC06895-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #6 DSC06897-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #7 DSC06896-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #8 DSC06898-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #9 DSC06900-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #10 DSC06892-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #11 DSC06894-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #12 DSC06841-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #13 DSC06876 by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #14 DSC06868-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #15 DSC06843-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #16 DSC06844-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #17 DSC06877-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #18 DSC06846-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #19 DSC06847-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #20 DSC06848-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #21 DSC06855-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #22 DSC06857 by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #23 DSC06858-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #24 DSC06859-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #25 DSC06881-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #26 DSC06863-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #27 DSC06866-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #28 DSC06869-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #29 DSC06871-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr #30 DSC06872-Bearbeitet by Ghost-Scooter, auf Flickr Behind the scene: Lake Constance Break French way
  23. This fortress was constructed by the Germans from 1907-1914. It served German soldiers during the First World War but saw little action. Then it was occupied by the French between 1919 & 1940, where it was incorporated into the maginot line for WWII. After the departure of French troops in June 1940, the German army took back the fort. On September 2, 1944, it was declared a fortress of the Reich by Hitler. The stronghold must therefore be defended until the last extremity by German troops, whose chiefs all took an oath to the Führer. In October 1944, the fort was captured by the American 3rd Army in the Battle of Metz. Definitely one of the best military sites I've visited yet. Amazing to think it served both WWI & WWII yet remains in such good condition today. There are dozens of murals dating back over a century, and 1,700m of tunnels connecting various sections. I had to be dragged away as I could have spent a week in here. Visited with @Maniac @extreme_ironing and @Andy. "Flourish German fatherland" "Cameroon child in Munich" / "Man does not agree" "Booze kills, so do not drink so much!" (or something to that effect....) "Beautiful is the recruit life" "Whoever quarrels or rushes gets the hell out of it" "May God punish England" Thanks for looking y'all
  24. The well-known 18th century building was once the central administration of a nearby steelworks. Visited with @The_Raw , @extreme_ironing & @Maniac. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
  25. Fort Jeanne d'Arc, also called Fortified Group Jeanne d'Arc, is a fortification located to the west of Metz in the Moselle department of France. It was built by Germany to the west of the town of Rozérieulles in the early 20th century as part of the third and final group of Metz fortifications. The fortification program was started after the German victory of the Franco-Prussian War, which resulted in the annexation of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine from Germany to France. The Fort Jeanne d'Arc was part of the Moselstellung, a group of eleven fortresses surrounding Thionville and Metz to guard against the possibility of a French attack aimed at regaining Alsace and Lorraine, with construction taking place between 1899 and 1908. The fortification system incorporated new principles of defensive construction to deal with advances in artillery. Later forts, such as Jeanne d'Arc, embodied innovative design concepts such as dispersal and concealment. These later forts were designed to support offensive operations, as an anchor for a pivoting move by German forces into France. The Feste Kaiserin, as Fort Jeanne d'Arc was called by the Germans, with seven other Metz forts, assured the protection of Metz against French attack. It is one of the largest of the Metz forts. Positioned to the rear of the principal lines of combat in the First World War, the fort never saw combat in that war, but was captured by advancing American forces in the Lorraine Campaign of World War II after resisting for nearly a month. Fort Jeanne d'Arc was designed for a garrison of 1900 men and armed with six 100mm guns in two batteries, six 150mm howitzers in two batteries and four 77mm guns in casemates. Four separate fortified barracks housed troops, with underground galleries connecting the battery, barracks, and infantry positions. In addition, four bastion-like points on the north, south, east and west housed infantry strongpoints. Barbed wire entanglements were swept by 77mm guns firing from bastions or counterscarp positions. The east and west strongpoints were separately enclosed with barbed wire entanglements and had their own barracks, while the west point additionally had an earthwork rampart with a caponier. A total of seven reinforced barracks had a capacity of 2580 troops. The fortified barracks were built into a hillside so that their rears are shielded by earth, while the tops and fronts are protected by three or four metres of concrete, and are surmounted by parapets. The batteries are similarly constructed and linked to the barracks by underground tunnels at an average depth of 8 metres (26 ft) to 11 metres (36 ft) metres, extending over 2,350 metres (7,710 ft). The whole was surrounded by deep networks of barbed wire, which were swept by fire from small perimeter blockhouses, also linked via the tunnel system. The interior of the position was equipped with trenches for infantry. The barracks and batteries were further armoured with reinforced concrete and armored windows. A variety of blockhouses and infantry shelters were also built in the intervals between forts. The fort's surface extends over 121 hectares (300 acres). The dispersed, un-walled nature of the later Moselstellung was a significant innovation. Compared to the French Séré de Rivières system forts of the same era, German fortifications were scattered over a large area and enclosed chiefly by barbed wire. While certain individual elements presented imposing walls to an attacker, these walls were not continuous. The dispersed nature is evidenced by the official French name: the Groupe Fortifié Jeanne d'Arc (Fortified Group of Jeanne d'Arc). These arrangements were studied and improved upon by the French in the construction of the Maginot Line. Begun in 1899, Jeanne d'Arc was completed in 1908 and saw no action during World War I, as Metz remained well within German lines for the duration of the war. The fort was initially named Feste Point du Jour, but was renamed Feste Kaiserin on 12 May 1900. The fort was reinforced with concrete over the original stonework between 1912 and 1914. Some of the original yellow stone remains visible on the face of the barracks, ornamented with elaborate reliefs. With the Armistice of 1918, Lorraine was returned to France and the fort became French property. The Metz fortifications contributed some of their long 100mm guns to replace the short 100mm guns at Thionville when France upgraded the Thionville sector to back up the Maginot Line fortifications in the area. Fort Jeanne d'Arc was the headquarters for the French 3rd Army in 1940. During the Battle of France the Metz area was bypassed and encircled by German forces, with the Maginot and earlier fortifications seeing little action before the Armistice of 1940. In September 1944, the U.S. 5th and 90th Infantry Divisions of the U.S. Third Army, approached Metz from the west. They encountered the western arc of Metz defenses, including Fort Jeanne d'Arc and its neighbors Fort Driant to the south and Fort François de Guise to the north. The defenses of Metz were manned by the 462nd Volksgrenadier Division, attached to the German First Army, Army Group G. A total of about 9,000 to 10,000 combat-ready troops occupied Metz. The combined fire of the forts stopped the American advance once initial contact had been made. An attack on Fort Driant beginning on 27 September was finally called off on 9 October after heavy U.S. casualties. After this check, a more patient strategy of encirclement and investment was pursued. achieving success with the capture of the Fort de Koenigsmacker at Thionville on 12 November. In mid-November a renewed attack was launched by XII and XX Corps to envelop and eventually bypass Metz. The U.S. 95th Infantry Division was stationed immediately to the west of Metz, in the vicinity of Fort Jeanne d'Arc, and maintained contact while the 5th Infantry and other U.S. formations moved to the north and south. An assault was opened by the 95th Infantry on 14 November, concentrating on the interval between Fort Jeanne d'Arc and Fort François de Guise, which was occupied by a chain of smaller fortifications known as the "Seven Dwarves." American forces were able to penetrate to the Moselle by 18 November, leaving a force behind to contain the forts. In the meantime, the surviving remnants of the 462nd Volksgrenadier consolidated a defense at Fort Jeanne d'Arc. At the end of November, three forts were holding out and surrounded by the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division. The Metz forts were gradually reduced through December. Fort Jeanne d'Arc was the last to surrender on 13 December 1944, capitulating to the U.S. III Corps. Following the war, Fort Jeanne d'Arc was selected to become a NATO control center for air defense operations, manned by American, Canadian and French personnel. The site was designated the Moselle Common Area Control (MCAC), and provided air traffic control for a portion of Northeastern France and adjoining areas of Luxembourg and West Germany, along with approach control for four USAF bases as well as a flight plan service for RCAF Station Grostenquin. The facility occupied casernes 3 and 4, with the interior of Caserne 4 renovated to provide a two-level operations room. Work was largely financed by Canada, with a French contribution of 73 million francs. After France's withdrawal from the NATO integrated command structure in 1967, the center was operated solely by the French, finally abandoned in the late 1990s. Visited with @The_Raw , @extreme_ironing & @Maniac . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
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